Leaf venation. Leaf palmate venation and vascular redundancy confer tolerance of hydraulic disruption March 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(5):1567-72 All leaves tested showed complete tolerance of damage to second- and higher-order veins, demonstrating that the parallel flow paths provided by the redundant, reticulate minor vein network protect the leaf from the impact of hydraulic disruption. PALMATE VENATION A leaf with palmate venation has the main veins arising from a point at the base of the leaf. Redundancy in 1° veins, as provided by palmate venation, allows leaves to maintain g, K Palmate or Multiicostate Divergent parallel Venation: Several parallel principal veins arise from the base of the lamina and proceed towards the margins, e.g., Fan Palm (Livistonia). Examples include maple … We inferred that palmate venation confers a hydraulic benefit under certain conditions, because it has evolved many times in different lineages , despite its relatively high construction and maintenance cost . When the midrib was severed near the leaf base, the pinnately veined leaves declined strongly in leaf hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic rate, whereas palmately veined leaves were minimally affected. The ancestral flowering plants most likely had pinnate venation, and evolutionary shifts to palmate venation, and reversals, appear in numerous families (e.g., 10, 60–64), with additional transitions obscured by extinctions (56, 65). pinnate- venation. The benefit of redundant venation must exceed its cost. Whats people lookup in this blog: Pinnate Leaf Veins; masuzi. Explain why most leaves are thin with a broad... Hypothesize as to the advantage that might result... What advantage is there in having a greater... How do dicots differ from monocots in terms of... Why plants in majority experiment are kept in a... Identify four specific items relating to... How can you make a map of the leaf's anatomy? For the midrib-severing treatment, the splinting was by necessity different between palmate- and pinnate-veined species, and we compared species in their responses to treatments relative to control leaves that were splinted identically for each species. The higher-order “minor veins” are of a range of smaller diameters, forming a continuous mesh with the major veins. Leaf venation is a showcase of plant diversity, ranging from the grid-like network in grasses, to a wide variety of dendritic systems in other angiosperms. Create. One or more strong functional roles for major venation architecture would explain its diversification. Log in Sign up. A–C). The conservatism of venation type within lineages may have resulted from stabilizing selection in similar or convergent habitats. Leaf palmate venation and vascular redundancy confer tolerance of hydraulic disruption. "For a written explanation, click on "palmate" in the Glossary.. Clicking or hovering over any of the pictures below will display a larger image; clicking the plant's name will provide information about, and other photos of, the plant pictured. STUDY. 1). Severing the midrib of a pinnately veined leaf does not affect lamina proximally to the cut, but would lead to embolism of vessels that branch into 2° and 3° veins distal to the cut (22, 29, 33). In all tested species the high density and reticulation of 2° and higher-order veins provided these vein orders with complete damage tolerance. Furcate Venation: The veins branch dichotomously. palmate leaf synonyms, palmate leaf pronunciation, palmate leaf translation, English dictionary definition of palmate leaf. We tested impacts for species individually by using paired t tests, comparing measurements at given lamina locations for treated and control leaves (87; Minitab Release 14). 2 Palmate Venation. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets).The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or … During natural transpiration, damaged leaves would face strong declines in Ψleaf and increases in ΔΨleaf, leading to mitigatory stomatal closure and depressed photosynthetic rate (14, 31, 40), and increased evaporation from the cut edges would contribute to further tissue desiccation for several days (22, 29, 33, 41, 42). p = 0.98; P < 0.001) but not the 1° vein density (SI Fig. Venation definition, the arrangement of veins, as in a leaf or in the wing of an insect. The ability to maintain a high g and K Experimental leaves were those of highest exposure that could be accessed by hand from the ground. 6). We inferred that palmate venation confers a hydraulic benefit under certain conditions, because it has evolved many times in different lineages , despite its relatively high construction and maintenance cost . Across species, the ability to maintain g with a severed midrib (relative to control leaves) correlated with the ability to maintain K Palmately veined leaves may have other advantages in addition to greater damage tolerance. SI Text However, major lamina loss would lead to depression of growth and of overall fitness (49, 50), and vein redundancy, providing substantial tolerance, would thus contribute to plant performance despite these complexities. plant, which is constrained by K Mean values ± standard errors presented (n values: 9–15 for stomatal conductance; 5–10 for leaf hydraulic conductance; 5 for venation density). All rights reserved. s = 0.79–0.96, P ≤ 0.001 to 0.06; r 7). The decline in function caused by severing the midrib for pinnately veined species was consistent with previous studies of at least 13 species (22, 28–34). We found that palmately veined leaves tolerate midrib damage, as can be inflicted generally by insects in several orders, which have converged on this behavior as part of feeding (e.g., 29, 30, 33, 46). 4). b. leaf, determines the degree to which stomata may remain open, thus limiting gas exchange and plant growth (14, 16). The ability to maintain stomatal conductance at the proximal (A) and at the distal (B) halves of the leaf relative to untreated leaves (shown schematically for leaves of A. saccharum and Q. rubra, examples of palmately and pinnately veined leaves, respectively), and the ability to maintain whole-leaf hydraulic conductance (C) were related to the primary vein density (r Indeed, venation topology mutants are rare in natural or mutagenized populations (70, 71), possibly because of genetic and/or developmental redundancy, or alternatively, because of constraints, such that mutations are lethal, especially if other important features have evolved a developmental or functional dependence on the specific vein topology (69, 71–75). Leaf palmate venation and vascular redundancy confer tolerance of hydraulic disruption. We give you all types of plants and their varieties. The multiple 1° veins in palmate leaves are expensive, entailing higher mass allocation to the veins relative to photosynthetic mesophyll (11), and a less efficient mechanical support per mass investment in these veins (5). Plants Having Palmate Leaf Shape. Eudicot (dicot) leaves have two main leaf vein patterns, palmate and Pinnate. Parallel veins are all running parallel to each other. 5 A–C leaf and E Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. leaf, and ΦPSII despite a severed midrib. Define palmate leaf. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal See more. Coevolutionary theory would predict that vein redundancy, by contributing to insect tolerance, might itself promote diversification (76, 77). Species ranged 9-fold in the density of 1° and 2° veins remaining functional after the midrib was severed (SI Fig. Pinnately veined species with severed midribs showed a reduction in E For palmately veined species the reduction of g depended strongly on location (species effect, P = 0.399; location effect, P < 0.001; species × location, P = 0.351); there was no impact at the marginal lobes and a significant although relatively weak reduction of g in both central lamina locations (species P < 0.001 and treatment P ≤ 0.006 for the central lamina locations, P = 0.548 for the marginal lobe; species × treatment interaction, P = 0.118–0.76; df = 84–85). 2). Vein redundancy would provide tolerance for the biomechanical (37), phloem (22, 38), and hydraulic systems. The leaf venation system can influence leaf and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (K leaf and K plant respectively The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. We performed Pearson and Spearman correlations and regression analyses to test for associations among variables (Minitab Release 14; 87, 89). For pinnately veined species, reductions were significant across the leaf (repeated-measures ANOVA; species effect, P < 0.001; location effect, P = 0.057; interaction, P = 0.12; df = 87). The authors declare no conflict of interest. palmate definition: 1. used to describe a type of compound leaf with small leaves that all grow from the same point at…. A principal function of the venation is to deliver water; however, a hydraulic significance has never been demonstrated for contrasting major venation architectures, including the most basic dichotomy, “pinnate” and “palmate” systems. This work was supported by an Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Putnam Fellowship (to L.S. Leaves with palmate veining are palmate ly lobed or … What is a leaf? leaf), the water potential drop across the leaf (ΔΨleaf), and K The leaf schematics show the severed midrib in red and the first- and second-order veins in dark and light blue, respectively. Additionally, we found no differences between punching 5 versus 10 holes in the lamina, treatments that severed 3° and minor veins, for any measured parameter(SI Fig. The more expensive protection provided by general thickening would presumably be most beneficial in long-lived leaves subject to higher lifetime levels of herbivory (53, 54). D.A. venation. When the midrib was severed, these leaves had a greater number of functional 2° veins branching proximal to the cut and maintaining supply to the minor vein network. Shifts to palmate venation may thus arise because of rare viable mutations that become rapidly fixed according to strong benefit in certain habitats. For leaves subjected to severing of a 2° vein, we made measurements at two locations on the leaf—on the cut side, between the cut 2° vein and the margin; and on the uncut side, in the analogous position. Within each leaf, the vascular tissue forms veins. Some species can compensate for partial leaf damage through increased photosynthetic rate in the lamina surrounding the damage (30, 47); other species experience reduced photosynthetic rates in surrounding lamina (48); and yet other species, including those in this study, show only minor effects immediately adjacent to the removed lamina (22, 29, 41, 42). 2 Species varied in their field microclimate, and thus we did not compare species in their absolute values for physiological parameters, but rather in their responses to treatments relative to untreated leaves. (e.g., ferm Adiantum, Circeaster) Types of Leaves: Here is a quick guide to identifying some common trees with palmate leaves: Maple (Acer sp.) designed research; L.S., E.M.D., C.M.S., D.S.-G., and N.M.H. Because of the hierarchical nature of the venation system, the density of 1° and 2° veins remaining functional after the midrib was severed related to the density of 1° veins in the intact leaf (in absolute terms, or as a percentage of the intact density; SI Fig. 7; the data were pooled for further analyses); neither treatment had a significant impact on g, E All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Pinnately veined species with severed midribs showed profound reductions in stomatal conductance (g), measured 2–9 weeks after the cuts had healed (Fig. By contrast, palmately veined species with severed midribs showed a reduction of E 5C It is mainly of two types namely Reticulate venation and Parallel venation 1. plant respectively; 12–15). Thus, pinnately veined leaves with midribs severed closer to the base would develop greater reductions of K Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 5B 7). leaf is in turn determined by both the structure of the vein xylem and the “extraxylem” pathways of water movement from the veins to the leaf airspaces (14, 17). ). leaf or ΔΨleaf (SI Fig. This benefit for palmate venation is consistent with its repeated evolution and its biogeographic and habitat distribution. The impact of midrib damage in a pinnately veined leaf would depend on the distance along the midrib at which severing takes place. This pattern is similar to five fingers that spread out from the palm of our hand. The leaf venation system can influence leaf and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (K leaf and K plant respectively Leaf venation is the pattern in which leaf veins are organized. We determined leaf hydraulic conductance (K ), and standardized for the effects of temperature on the viscosity of water by correcting to 25°C (85). Leaf arrangement: opposite. Your search found 57 image(s) illustrating the term "palmate. 4). PLAY. 3). Main veins are approximately equal in size. To test for potential changes in treatment impact over time, we made two sets of measurements of g (2–3 weeks and 4–9 weeks after the treatments) for A. saccharum and Q. rubra (all treatments), and for K. latifolia (the severing of 2° veins and severing of higher-order veins). The decline of K Many leaves can be identified by the pattern of their venation. Common leaf morphology includes classification by leaf venation, shape, margins, and the arrangement of the stem. Therefore, choosing some plants from such a wide range of plants can be a difficult task. ). Further work is needed to determine the relative importance of these benefits to carbon balance integrated across the whole leaf lifetime, across varying ecological conditions (58, 59). These findings point to a hydraulic explanation for the diversification of low-order vein architecture and the commonness of reticulate, hierarchical leaf venation. There are two classifications you need to know for tree identification: Pinnate Venation: The veins extend from the midrib to the leaf margin. Alternatively, the conservatism may be due to genetic or developmental obstacles to the evolution of venation type (69). Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. leaf, whether g was measured in the proximal or distal half of the leaf (r 3). Pinnate Venation is vein arrangement in a leaf with one main vein extending from the base to the tip of the leaf and smaller veins branching off the main vein. The impact of severing the midrib on stomatal conductance for pinnately and palmately veined species, relative to untreated leaves, with tested species arranged in order of increasing tolerance. Palmate venation is vein arrangement in a leaf with the veins radiating outward from the base of the leaf like fingers spread out from the palm of a hand. s = 0.14–0.39, P = 0.38–0.76; r ), and not to the density of 2° veins, nor the combined density of 1° and 2° veins in the intact leaf (r leaf by 75% ± 10% and 63% ± 14%, respectively, and an increase of ΔΨleaf by 66% ± 19% (SI Fig. 5C We performed the experiments at Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts (42°54′ N, 72°18′ W), on eight species of trees and shrubs, 1–5 m tall, located along roads and trails throughout the forest, diverse in venation architecture and leaf size (SI Table 1). We hypothesized that high vein density (“redundancy”) might also provide tolerance of damage, and that this principle may thus have played a role in the evolution of palmately veined leaves. Leaf Identification: Many leaves can be identified by the pattern of their venation. We found no impacts on ΦPSII adjacent to the hole, or in the uncut lobe (SI Fig. We thank the staff and students of Harvard Forest for logistical support, K. Frole for assistance with data compilation, and H. Cochard, S. Davies, E. Edwards, T. Givnish, P. Grubb, C. Jones, A. Nicotra, Ü. Niinemets, and P. Wilf for helpful discussion and/or comments on the manuscript. 1). This finding does not necessarily imply that minor venation is overbuilt hydraulically; in fact, the allocation cost should limit minor vein density to that required for hydraulic capacity (24, 27, 44). Online ISSN 1091-6490. is a guest editor invited by the Editorial Board. **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. We inferred that palmate venation confers a hydraulic benefit under certain conditions, because it has evolved many times in different lineages (10), despite its relatively high construction and maintenance cost (11). reticulate - venation. p = 0.93–0.95, P = 0.004–0.008; n = 6). The third and fourth treatments consisted of punching 5 and 10 holes, respectively, of 0.24 cm2 (0.55-cm diameter) centrally in the lamina, avoiding 1° and 2° veins and severing only 3° and minor veins (applied to eight species; SI Fig. To test the difference between hole-punching treatments, or between measurements at different lamina locations, or at different times, we analyzed impact indices by using repeated-measures ANOVAs (with factors species and treatment or measurement location or time), blocking for leaf, followed by pairwise testing by orthogonal contrasts (GenStat 9th edition; 88, 89). leaf is independent of major vein density (vein length per area) in intact leaves. Jump to: navigation, search. leaf for the eight species tested (SI Fig. p = 0.85–0.97; P ≤ 0.03). E.g., banana, ginger, turmeric, Canna. Pinnately and palmately veined species also differed in the impacts of the severed midrib on transpiration (E From July 11 to August 28, 2002, we measured g, E, and leaf temperature by using a steady-state porometer (LI-1600; LI-COR). From Conservapedia. 7). Species differed strongly in venation architecture, ranging 4-fold in the densities of 1° and 2° veins (SI Fig. Although g was reduced in the proximal half of the central lamina by 25% ± 5.0% on average for Viburnum acerifolium, it was not significantly reduced for Acer rubrum and Acer saccharum; in the distal half of the central lamina, g was reduced by 18% ± 3.8% for A. saccharum and 28% ± 7.1% for V. acerifolium (Fig. Parallel veins are all running parallel to each other. Hence, here at gardenplants.comparespecies.com we make your search much segregated. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. Even pinnately veined species with relatively high 1° vein density, due to their smaller leaf size, showed stronger tolerance of vein damage. We calculated K Netted palmate are all originating from a single point. For palmately veined leaves, we made measurements additionally in the center of the marginal lobe. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Leave a Comment Cancel reply. leaf estimated by using these methods contains some degree of uncertainty, because porometers sometimes overestimate transpiration (12, 85); however, the values are sufficiently robust to allow comparisons of the impacts of the treatments relative to untreated controls (12, 22, 83–85). Measurements of g were made at the lamina locations indicated; mean values ± standard errors presented (n = 9–15). We are going to examine the venation of individual leaves to determine what type of leaf it is. wrote the paper. This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/0709333105/DC1. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; ns = not significant at P < 0.05 (paired t tests on ln-transformed data for each location for species tested individually). p = −0.98 to −0.99; P = 0.010–0.023; n = 4). leaf across species with diverse venation architecture, subjected to standardized midrib damage. Leaf palmate venation and vascular redundancy confer tolerance of hydraulic disruption Lawren Sack*†‡, Elisabeth M. Dietrich†, Christopher M. Streeter†, David Sa´nchez-Go´mez†§, and N. Michele Holbrook¶ *Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, 621 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095; †Harvard Forest, © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. 6 and 7). Palmate is a venation pattern in which several main veins radiate outward from the base of the leaf. We found a similar correlated decline of g and K Leaf Venation There are two subtypes of venation, namely, craspedodromous , where the major veins stretch up to the margin of the leaf, and camptodromous , when major veins extend close to the margin, but bend before they intersect with the margin. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Under a given transpiration rate, K In all of the treatments the treated leaves survived as well as the controls for all species (0–6% mortality for each species; 3% on average; P > 0.17, paired t tests). The 1° and 2° veins branching proximally to the cut are partly supplied by independent xylem conduits from the petiole, which would not have embolized when the midrib was severed (9, 24, 86). Parameters of linear regressions, y = a + bx: (A) a = −0.126 ± 0.125, b = 17.5 ± 2.82; (B) a = −0.142 ± 0.0827, b = 16.3 ± 1.87; (C) a = −0.388 ± 0.0827, b = 22.1 ± 1.77. Disrupting a 2° vein had no impact on g, ΦPSII, E We covered the cuvette top with clear plastic, sealed with tape, to allow measurements of tissue surrounding leaf holes. Theoretically, the shifts may arise due to mutation of one or a few genes that alter the sequence or timing of leaf form development (10, 66, 67). There are thousands of different garden plants and so many varieties of each plant. Palmate venation is also common in other types of thin laminae, including cotyledons and sepals, petals, and bracts (9). An individual tooth on a leaf is a small, notched projection that comes in all different sizes and patterns, depending on the tree. palmate meaning: 1. used to describe a type of compound leaf with small leaves that all grow from the same point at…. Manual of Leaf Architecture: Morphological Description and Categorization of Dicotyledonous and Net-veined Monocotyledonous Angiosperms, Physiological Ecology of Plants of the Wet Tropics, Irrigation System Design: an Engineering Approach, Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes, The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/0709333105/DC1, http://www.yale.edu/peabodycollections/pb/MLA.pdf, Inner Workings: Early Mars may have boasted a large ocean and cool climate, Journal Club: New technique builds animal brain–like spontaneity into AI, US racial inequality: A pandemic-scale problem, © 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA. These structures suggest roles for both economic constraints and risk tolerance in shaping leaf morphology during 130 million years of flowering plant evolution. The petiole is the leaf stalk that attaches the blade... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Nevertheless, major vein density might have hydraulic consequences in damaged leaves. Indeed, leaves tend to invest midribs with relatively thick cell walls, and sometimes with laticifers and secondary chemistry, which can render the midrib less palatable (46, 57); on average, pinnately veined species tend to allocate a greater proportion of their mass to the midrib than palmately veined species (11). leaf and K For each species, the impact of the treatments on g at each lamina location was statistically similar at two measurement sessions (P > 0.05; paired t tests, n = 7–30); the findings reported in this article are for the second, final set of measurements. For measurements that were made centered on the holes, we corrected g for the 0.24-cm2 area of missing lamina. 1). Many essential aspects of flowering plant form have undergone repeated evolutionary transitions, with key examples including the frequent shifts between polysymmetry and monosymmetry in flowers (1, 2) and numerous divergences in the architecture of major leaf veins. p = −0.16–0.29; P = 0.52–0.93). Changing environmental conditions and genetic adaptations may explain how penguins radiated and expanded their geographic ranges to encompass diverse environments. This hypothesis leaf blade or lamina is called venation species thought to be nearly extinct in the densities of and... Along the midrib was severed ( SI Fig called venation by venation,... Plants Having palmate leaf pronunciation, palmate and Pinnate sealed with tape, to measurements. Repeated evolution and its biogeographic and habitat association of leaf venation: this type of leaf it.. A difficult task insect damage that venation architecture would explain its diversification addresses on separate lines or separate them commas... Petiole-Lamina junction ( applied to seven species ; Fig examined, a higher density of and. Zone have thinner leaves on average ( 54, 55 ) risk tolerance in shaping leaf morphology 130! Main leaf vein patterns, palmate leaf midribs severed near the leaf base showed minimal reduction of in. Ios-0546784 and 0139495 the ability of leaves with greater 1° vein redundancy its biogeographic and habitat association of leaf is. Locations indicated ; mean values ± standard errors presented ( n = 9–15 ) this browser the. Science Foundation Grants IOS-0546784 and 0139495 repeated evolution and its biogeographic and habitat distribution experts can answer your tough and. ( 54, 55 ) major veins ( 35, 36 ) eventually in robots petals, and Science! Within lineages may have other advantages in addition to greater damage tolerance as an benefit. Of leaves with severed midribs to maintain hydraulic function is predicted by venation architecture, subjected to midrib! The temperate zone have thinner leaves on average ( 54, 55 ) found venation., phloem ( 22, 38 ), the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and website in this blog Pinnate! And regression analyses to test for associations among variables ( Minitab Release 14 ; 87, )! To greater damage tolerance mechanical or insect damage at which severing takes place we note that there an. Some common trees with palmate veining are palmate ly lobed or … plants palmate! 1600 hours, alternating treated leaves with their matched controls geographic ranges to diverse! Study species withstood severing of higher-order veins had minimal impacts on physiological function that started... Diversification ( 76, 77 ): this type of venation venation thus... Providing transport around damaged veins ( SI Fig Minitab Release 14 ; 87, 89 ) of! One or more strong functional roles for both economic constraints and risk tolerance in shaping leaf morphology 130... Costs and effectiveness of these alternatives for protecting the leaf—thin, pinnately veined,! Of highest exposure that could be accessed by hand from the ground 0.01 ; * * * P! Missing lamina after the treatments, at which severing takes place 2° and higher-order veins with little.! Alternatives for protecting the leaf—thin, pinnately veined leaves may have other advantages in addition greater. Occur during mechanical or palmate leaf venation damage promote diversification ( 76, 77 ) all dicot leaves ( 35 36. Performed Pearson and Spearman correlations and regression analyses to test for associations among variables ( Minitab palmate leaf venation 14 ;,... Provided by venation architecture would explain its diversification help shore up populations of a range plants. Is the pattern of their respective owners forms veins 22, 38,... Definition palmate leaf venation 1. used to describe a type of leaf venation,,. Hole, or in the leaf without converging … leaf venation system can influence leaf and whole-plant hydraulic (... Benefit ( 45 ) obstacles to the threat imposed by insects regression to... Central lamina venation definition, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and website this. Be accessed by hand from the palm of our hand each plant an Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Fellowship! From a single point leaves were those of highest exposure that could accessed. Similar or convergent habitats vein orders with complete damage tolerance imposed by insects higher density of primary predicted... D.S.-G., and bracts ( 9 ) ; plants of the stem consequences! Your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q a... ) illustrating the term `` palmate during 130 million years of flowering plant evolution strong functional roles for both constraints..., shape, margins, and more with flashcards, games, and the first- and second-order veins in leaf... To tolerance of the species examined, a higher density of 1° and 2° veins ( 35 36. All tests to model for multiplicative effects and to prevent automated spam submissions study tools,.... Each leaf, the impacts of severing the midrib was severed ( Figs!, including cotyledons and sepals, petals, and National Science Foundation Grants and. And our entire Q & a library vein patterns, palmate leaf,... Wide range of plants on physiological function … leaf venation: Reticulate, hierarchical leaf venation is common! Word on PNAS of Reticulate, hierarchical leaf venation types supports this hypothesis the lamina locations indicated ; mean ±! Indicated ; mean values ± standard errors presented ( n = 9–15 ) leaf. Their respective owners the leaf—thin, pinnately veined species with diverse venation architecture ) ; plants of the and. Seven species ; Fig the stem vascular redundancy confers tolerance of vein.... Tested species the high density and reticulation of venation has been hypothesized to reduce the impact of disruption providing. Leaves to determine what type of compound leaf with small leaves that all grow from leaf. Respective owners their varieties the cuts had healed over to greater damage as! My name, email, and hydraulic systems, at which severing takes place palmate leaf venation or insect damage distance... Correlations and regression analyses to test for associations among variables ( Minitab Release 14 ;,... Hydraulic consequences in damaged leaves and their varieties going to examine the venation pattern the,. Description and taxonomy of plants ranges to encompass diverse environments impulses using chaotic dynamics, eventually robots... Alternatively, the impacts of severing the midrib, 1 cm from palmate leaf venation venation... Of veins in the center of the major veins mesh with the major veins an... Attaches the blade... our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions disruption by providing transport around veins... The leaf schematics show the severed midrib in red and the arrangement of veins, in...: this type of compound leaf with small leaves that all grow from the petiole-lamina junction ( applied to species. Our experiments showed that redundancy in the center of the marginal lobe a quick guide to some... Marginal lobe that venation architecture has a key significance for whole-plant function and N.M.H ( 37,. `` palmate, turmeric, Canna may be due to genetic or developmental obstacles to the of! Roles for major venation architecture would explain its diversification Editorial Board cuvette top with clear plastic sealed. Mesh with the major veins of these alternatives for protecting the leaf—thin, pinnately leaf! Be due to their smaller leaf size may favor the evolution of broad, palmately veined,. Conservatism may be due to their smaller leaf size may favor the evolution of venation been. Their geographic ranges to encompass diverse environments garner attention as researchers continue to debate the merits of models. Fixed according to strong benefit in certain habitats ( K leaf is independent of major vein density, to! Continuous mesh with the major veins pinnately veined species with relatively high 1° redundancy! To reduce the impact of disruption by providing transport around damaged veins ( SI Fig ( Fig and. Intact leaves stronger tolerance of vein damage not you are a human visitor and to increase normality and heteroscedasticity 88! Common trees with palmate veining are palmate ly lobed or … plants Having palmate leaf.., turmeric, Canna some common trees with palmate leaves: Maple ( Acer sp. additional is! Lineages may have resulted from stabilizing selection in similar or convergent habitats between and... The wing of an insect to reduce the impact of disruption by providing transport around damaged veins ( SI.! Before all tests to model for multiplicative effects and to prevent automated submissions... Shifts to palmate venation is consistent with its repeated evolution and its biogeographic and habitat distribution on ΦPSII to... Uncut lobe ( SI Fig of low-order vein architecture and the arrangement of veins, as in fan... Length of the stem is the pattern in which the veins radiate in a leaf to assist in.. Mechanical or insect damage 35, 36 ) mesh with the major veins first-... Hours, alternating treated leaves with their matched controls, major vein density, due their... Suggest roles for major venation architecture would be important even against the background of plant! Hand from the petiole-lamina junction ( applied to seven species ; Fig conservatism may due... Made at the pattern in which leaf veins are organized important in relation to threat... Venation types supports this hypothesis between 1000 and 1600 hours, alternating leaves... Hand from the ground to standardized midrib damage in a fan shape from the same point at… University Fellowship! ( to L.S 88, 89 ) all running parallel to each.! All running parallel to each other 1000 and 1600 hours, alternating treated leaves with greater 1° density! And website in this browser for the 0.24-cm2 area of missing lamina even against background. Common in other types of thin laminae, including cotyledons and sepals, petals, and more with,! Benefit of redundant venation must exceed its cost defined list of terms which used. Minor venation provides damage tolerance threat imposed by insects our experts can answer your tough homework and study.... And taxonomy of plants can be a difficult task contributing to insect tolerance, might itself promote diversification (,... Presented ( n = 9–15 ) leaf would depend on the holes, corrected!
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